TESLA, Inc. (a non profit corporation) Proposal: PROJECT TESLA. The Demonstration of Artificially Stimulated Resonance of the Earth's Ionosphere Waveguide: a precursor for the wireless transmission of vast amounts of electrical power using the Schumann Cavity.
February 21, 1989
Toby Grotz President Mary Estill Buchanan Director James Sheppard Secretary/Treasurer Gardner Robertson Director
TABLE OF CONTENTS Abstract Introduction Assessment of Need Project Objectives Methods Evaluation Procedure Regulating Agencies Environmental Considerations Project Administration Future Funding Timetable Financial Projections Tesla, Inc., History, Objectives Personnel Appendix Resumes References: "PC Monitors Lightning Worldwide", by Davis D. Sentman, Computers in Science, Premiere Issue, 1987.
The following four papers were presented at the 1984 Tesla Centennial Symposium and the 1986 International Tesla Symposium. "The Transient Propagation of ELF Pulses in the Earth-Ionosphere Cavity", by A-Ahamid Aidinejad and James F. Corum. "Disclosures Concerning the Operation of an ELF Oscillator", by James F. Corum and Kenneth L. Corum. "A Physical Interpretation of the Colorado Springs Data", by James F. Corum and Kenneth L. Corum. "Critical Speculations Concerning Tesla's Invention and Applications of Single Electrode X-Ray Directed Discharges for Power Processing, Terrestrial Resonances and Particle Beam Weapons" by James F. Corum and Kenneth L. Corum.
Abstract It has been proven by researchers, W. O. Schumann and Dr. James R. Waite, that electrical energy can be propagated around the world between the surface of the Earth and the ionosphere at extremely low frequencies in what is nown as the Schumann Cavity. Experiments to date have shown that electromagnetic waves with frequencies in the range of 8 Hz, the fundamental Schumann Resonance frequency, propagate with little attenuation around the planet within the Schumann Cavity. The Schumann Cavity can be resonated, similar to the way a magnetron tube excites the cavity of a home microwave oven. The power that is delivered to the cavity propagates at very low losses and can be extracted at other locations within the cavity.
Experimental data collected and calculations made in recent years support the hypothesis that wireless power transmission is a viable and practical alternative to the present systems of power transmission. Introduction It was not until 1954-1959 that experimental measurements were made of the frequency that is propagated in the resonant cavity surrounding the Earth. Recent analysis shows that it was Ni ola Tesla in 1899, who first noticed the existence of stationary waves in the Schumann cavity. Tesla's experimental measurements of the wave length and frequency involved closely match Schumann's theoretical calculations. These observations were made in 1899 while Tesla was monitoring the electromagnetic radiations due to lightning discharges in a thunderstorm. It passed over his Colorado Springs laboratory and then moved more than 200 miles eastward across the plains.
In his Colorado Springs Notes, Tesla noted that these stationary waves "... can be produced with an oscillator," and added in parenthesis, "This is of immense importance." The importance of his observations is due to the support they lend to the prime objective of the Colorado Springs laboratory. The intent of the experiments and the laboratory Tesla had constructed was to prove that wireless transmission of electrical power was possible. At the time of his measurements, Tesla was experimenting with and researching methods for, "...power transmission and transmission of intelligible messages to any point on the globe." Tesla was not able to commercially mar et a system to transmit power around the globe.
However modern scientific theory, mathematical calculations and data collected during the last sixty years support his contention that the wireless propagation of electrical power is possible. It would be a feasible alternative to the extensive and costly grid of electrical transmission lines used today for electrical power distribution. It has been shown by Schumann that electrical energy can be propagated around the world between the surface of the earth and the ionosphere. The energy is propagated in this "Schumann Cavity" at a very low frequencies. Experiments to date have shown that electromagnetic wave propagation occurs at a frequency of about eight cycles and that the propagation occurs with very attenuation. The electromagnetic techniques to be power in the Schumann Cavity are similar to generation in a magnetron cavity and propagation in latter technology is very well nown and is used in radar, and communication systems. little loss or used to transmit microwave signal a waveguide.
The microwave ovens, High energy excitation is necessary to resonate the Schumann Cavity and transfer power. Lightning is a natural atmospheric phenomenon that provides high energy discharges. It is expected that lightning would transfer power to the Schumann Cavity. Indeed, lightning discharges throughout the world occur at a combined rate of several per second. However, due to their random nature they do not produce useful power. The presence of this energy is easily detected by AM radios during a thunderstorm. These discharges are disorganized and produce a wide range of frequencies from a few cycles per second to several thousand cycles per second. The higher frequencies attenuate rapidly with distance. The extremely low frequencies, which match the resonant frequency of the cavity, are reinforced and propagate great distances with very little loss.
The wavelength of eight cycles per second is equal to the circumference of the Earth at the equator. One cycle of this frequency fits perfectly within the Schumann Cavity and circles the earth. The purpose of Project Tesla is to create pulses, or electrical disturbances, that would travel in all directions around the Earth and resonate in the thin membrane of nonconductive air between the ground and the ionosphere in the Schumann Cavity. The pulses, or waves, would follow the surface of the Earth expanding outward to the maximum circumference of the Earth, until meeting at a point opposite to that of the transmitter. This point is called the antipode. The exact location has been calculated to be above an area in the Indian Ocean far from any land mass.
The traveling waves would be reflected from the antipode to the transmitter, be reinforced, and sent out again. This process, analogous to pushing a pendulum, would be repeated at 8.0 Hz, the resonant frequency of the Schumann Cavity. Assessment of Need A great concern has been voiced in recent years over the extensive use of energy, the limited supply of resources, and the pollution of the environment from the use of present energy conversion systems. Electrical power accounts for much of the energy consumed. Much of this power is wasted during transmission from power plant generators to the consumer.
The resistance of the wire used in the electrical grid distribution system causes a loss of 26-30% of the energy generated. This loss implies that our present system of electrical distribution is only 70-74% efficient. A system of power distribution with little or no loss would conserve energy. It would reduce pollution and expenses resulting from the need to generate power to overcome and compensate for losses in the present grid system. Based on the 1971 world-wide power generation of 908 million ilowatts, approximately 207 million ilowatts are being produced to ma e up for losses. This results in a cost of 454 billion dollars at 5 cents a ilowatt. The power
wasted in transmission now costs over 100 billion dollars a year. Wireless transmission of power, if fully utilized, could save over 90 billion dollars per year. Any technology that can reduce these losses and the corresponding costs is of extreme importance. The proposed project would demonstrate a method of energy distribution calculated to be 90-94% efficient. An electrical distribution system, based on this method would eliminate the need for an inefficient, costly, and capital intensive grid of cables, towers, and substations. The system would reduce the cost of electrical energy used by the consumer and rid the landscape of wires, cables, and transmission towers. There are areas of the world where the need for electrical power exists, yet there is no method for delivering power.
Africa is in need of power to run pumps to tap into the vast resources of water under the Sahara Desert. Rural areas, such as those in China, require the electrical power necessary to bring them into the 20th century and to equal standing with western nations. As first proposed by Buc minster Fuller, wireless transmission of power would enable world wide distribution of off pea demand capacity. This concept is based on the fact that some nations, especially the United States, have the capacity to generate much more power than is needed. This situation is accentuated at night. The greatest amount of power used, the pea demand, is during the day. The extra power available during the night could be sold to the side of the planet where it is day time.
Considering the huge capacity of power plants in the United States, this system would provide a saleable product which could do much to aid our balance of payments. In 1971, nine industrialized nations, (with 25 percent of the world's population), used 690 ilowatts, 76 percent of all power generated. The rest of the world used only 218 million ilowatts. By comparison, China generated only 17 million ilowatts and India generated only 15 million ilowatts (less than two percent each). If a conservative assumption was made that the three-quarters of the world which is only using one-quarter of the current power production were to eventually consume as much as the first quarter, then an additional 908 million ilowatts will be needed. The demand for electrical power will continue to increase with the industrialization of the world. A system of wireless transmission of power would ma e electrical energy available to people and nations which are not now privileged with the access to power developed nations ta e for granted.
The objectives of the proposed project will be divided into three areas of investigation: 1. Demonstration that the Schumann Cavity can be resonated with an open air, vertical dipole antenna; 2. Measurement of power insertion losses; 3. Measurement of power retrieval losses locally. Methods A full size, 51 foot diameter, air core, radio frequency resonating coil and a 120 foot tower have been constructed and are operational at an elevation of approximately 11,000 feet for the experiment. This system is centered around a very powerful resonating Tesla Coil. It was originally built in 1973-1974 and used until 1982 by the United States Air Force at Wendover AFB in Wendover, Utah.
The USAF used the coil for simulating natural lightning for testing and hardening fighter aircraft. The system has a capacity of 150 ilowatts. The coil, which is the largest part of the system, has already been built, tested, and is operational. A location at a high altitude is initially advantageous for reducing atmospheric losses which wor against an efficient coupling to the Schumann Cavity. The high frequency, high voltage output of the coil will be half wave rectified using a uniquely designed single electrode X-ray tube. The X-ray tube will be used to electrostatically charge a 120 ft. tall, vertical mast which will function to provide a vertical current moment.
The mast is topped by a metal sphere 30 inches in diameter. A circulating current of 1,000 amperes in the system will create an ionization and corona causing a large virtual electrical capacitance in the medium surrounding the sphere. Discharging the antenna 7-8 times per second through a fixed or rotary spar gap will create electrical disturbances, which will resonantly excite the Schumann Cavity, and propagate around the entire Earth. The propagated wave front will be reflected from the antipode and reflected to the transmitter site. The reflected wave will be reinforced and again radiated when it returns to the transmitter. As a result, an oscillation will be established and maintained in the Schumann Cavity.
The loss of power in the cavity has been estimated to be about 6% per round trip. If the same amount of power is put into the cavity on each cycle of oscillation of the transmitter, there will be a net energy gain which will result in a net voltage, or amplitude increase. This will result in reactive energy storage in the cavity. As long as energy is delivered to the cavity, the process will continue until the energy is removed by heating, lightning discharges, or as is proposed by this project, loading by tuned circuits at distant locations for power distribution. The resonating cavity field will be detected by stations both in the United States and overseas.
These will be staffed by engineers and scientists who have agreed to participate in the experiment. Measurement of power insertion and retrieval losses will be made at the transmitter site and at distant receiving locations. Equipment constructed especially for measurement of low frequency electromagnetic waves will be employed to measure the effectiveness of using the Schumann Cavity as a means of electrical power distribution. The detection equipment used by project personnel will consist of a pic up coil and industry standard low noise, high gain operational amplifiers and active band pass filters,
In addition to project detection there will be a record of the experiment recorded by a networ of monitoring stations that have been set up specifically to monitor electromagnetic activity in the Schumann Cavity. Evaluation Procedure The project will be evaluated by an analysis of the data provided by local and distant measurement stations. The output of the transmitter will produce a 7-8 Hz sine wave as a result of the discharges from the antenna. The recordings made by distant stations will be time synchronized to ensure that the data received is a result of the operation of the transmitter. Power insertion and retrieval losses will be analyzed after the measurements ta en during the transmission are recorded. Attenuation, field strength, and cavity Q will be calculated using the equations presented in Dr. Corum's papers. These papers are supplied in the appendix. If recorded results indicate power can be efficiently coupled into or transmitted in the Schumann Cavity, a second phase of research involving power reception will be initiated.
Regulating Agencies The Radio Regulations of the International Telecommunications Union (ITU), Article 2, Section 11, Geneva; 1959, list world wide frequency allocations from 10 ilohertz to 275 gigahertz. Frequencies below 10 ilohertz and above 275 gigahertz are not allocated. In the United States the Federal Communications Commission has allocated frequencies in accordance with ITU regulations. In effect, there is no governmental agency in the world that has jurisdiction over the frequency of operation of Project Tesla.
Environmental Considerations The extreme low frequencies (ELF), present in the environment have several origins. The time varying magnetic fields produced as a result of solar and lunar influences on ionospheric currents are on the order of 30 nanoteslas. The largest time varying fields are those generated by solar activity and thunderstorms. These magnetic fields reach a maximum of 0.5 microteslas (uT) The magnetic fields produced as a result of lightning discharges in the Schumann Cavity pea at 7, 14, 20 and 26 Hz. The magnetic flux densities associated with these resonant frequencies vary from 0.25 to 3.6 picoteslas. per root hertz (pT/Hz1/2).
Exposure to man made sources of ELF can be up to 1 billion (1000 million or 1 x 109) times stronger than that of naturally occurring fields. Household appliances operated at 60 Hz can produce fields as high as 2.5 mT. The field under a 765 V, 60 Hz power line carrying 1 amp per phase is 15 uT. ELF antennae systems that are used for submarine communication produce fields of 20 uT. Video display terminals produce fields of 2 uT, 1,000,000 times the strength of the Schumann Resonance frequencies. Project Tesla will use a 150 w generator to excite the Schumann cavity. Dr. Corum's calculations predict that the field strength due to this excitation at 7.8 Hz will be on the order of 46 picoteslas.
Project Administration Project Tesla will be administered by an executive committee composed of members of the Board of Tesla Inc. The chairman of the executive committee will ma e decisions concerning day to day operations. The project budget will be approved by the Board of Directors. Any expenditures not specified in the original budget, over $1,000, will require the approval of the executive committee. Additional expenditures over $5,000 will need approval of the Board of Directors. A Certified Public Accountant will be retained to ma e quarterly statements. A boo eeper will eep wee ly and monthly records of expenditures.
All purchased equipment will receive a project ID number which will aid property accountability. All aspects of project administration will be in accordance with any guidelines or requirements stipulated by the funding agency. Future Funding The successful resonating of the Schumann Cavity and wireless transmission of power on a small scale resulting in proof of principle will require the engineering and design of receiving stations. On completion of the second phase, the third and fourth phases of the project involving further tests and improvements and a large scale demonstration project will be pursued to prove commercial feasibility. A larger system of several megawatts in size can be constructed to transmit power to a distant site such as a construction site in need of a large amount of electrical energy.
TESLA Inc, History and Objectives TESLA Inc. is a nonprofit corporation. Incorporated on November 12th, 1987, TESLA Inc. was formed primarily to engage in innovative research in the field of electromagnetics. The organization has begun research with a study of the feasibility of the wireless transmission of power. The goals and objectives of the organization are as follows: The purposes of this Corporation are: to increase awareness of and to stimulate interest in new discoveries in the scientific arena, particularly, electromagnetics and the wireless transmission of electrical power, to promote the inventions, discoveries and theories of Nicola Tesla (1856 - 1946); to organize meetings of interested engineers, scientists and laymen; to provide various educational scientific and historical materials; to publish annual results of research for the public without preference to any individual or organization; to retain ownership of any patents, copyrights, processes or formulas resulting from research; and to promote and engage in contracted and sponsored research in the area of electromagnetism and the discoveries and theories of Ni ola Tesla.
Research in the arena of wireless transmission of power will be nown as Project Tesla. This Corporation is organized and operated exclusively for educational, research, and scientific purposes within the meaning of Section 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 as amended. Personnel Mr. Toby Grotz, President, is an electrical engineer and has 15 years experience in the field of geophysics, aerospace and industrial research and design. While wor ing for the Geophysical Services Division of Texas Instruments and at the University of Texas at Dallas, Mr. Grotz was introduced to and wor ed with the geophysical concepts which are of importance to the proposed project. As a Senior Engineer at Martin Marietta, Mr. Grotz designed and supervised the construction of industrial process control systems and designed and built devices and equipment for use in research and development and for testing space flight hardware. Mr. Grotz organized and chaired the 1984 Tesla Centennial Symposium and the 1986 International Tesla Symposium and was president of the International Tesla Society, a not for profit corporation formed as a result the first symposium.
As Project Manager for Project Tesla, Mr. Grotz aided in the design and construction of a recreation of the equipment Ni ola Tesla used for wireless transmission of power experiments in 1899 in Colorado Springs. Mr. Grotz received his B.S.E.E. from the University of Connecticut in 1973. Mr. James Sheppard, Secretary/Treasurer, is a technical writer for Martin Marietta and has 5 years experience in the professional field of writing. He earned his BA in English from North Da ota State University, Fargo, North Da ota in 1977. As a technical writer, Mr. Sheppard has had experience with writing manuals for operating various signal processing equipment, test procedures, and engineering procedures for aerospace application, as well as assisting in preparation of customer presentations and proposals.
Mr. Sheppard has also held the position as Secretary in a nonprofit corporation, the International Tesla Society. Mary Estill Buchanan, Director, is a management consultant and writer. She is the former Secretary of State for Colorado and remains active in political and national affairs. The first woman to receive an M.B.A. with distinction from the Harvard Business School in 1962, she also holds a B.A. in Chemistry from Wellesley College. Gardner Robertson, Director, is a consultant to the mining industry in the central Roc y Mountains. Mr. Robertson retired from the AMAX Inc. molybdenum mine at Climax Colorado in 1976. As a Senior Electrical Engineer Mr. Robertson supervised contracted electrical construction both above and below ground.
Mr. Robertson introduced Project Tesla to AMAX management and acts as a liaison between the project and local mine administration. Dr. James F. Corum, Technical Director, was an Assistant Professor of Electrical Engineering at West Virginia University and is now a consultant for the broadcast industry wor ing with CPG Communications near Cleveland, Ohio. Dr. Corum proved mathematically that the experimental data Ni ola Tesla recorded during his experiments in Colorado Springs, in 1899, fit the equations for electromagnetic propagation in the Schumann Cavity as developed and proven by Schumann, Waite, and others. Dr. Corum has also proven mathematically that it may be possible to resonate the Schumann Cavity as described in this proposal.
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